The chemistry teacher candidate knows and understands scientific concepts and principles that are needed to advance student learning for all students as defined by the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) emphasizing the Disciplinary Core Ideas, the Science and Engineering Practices and the Crosscutting Concepts. The chemistry teacher candidate can integrate chemistry with basic principles of biology, Earth and space science, environmental science, physics, and mathematics. Competency requires evidence of integration of Science and Engineering Practices and Crosscutting Concepts with Disciplinary Core Ideas and will include examples that illustrate this integration when teaching.
1.0 Disciplinary Core Ideas
1.A Understands and can explain the disciplinary core ideas of physical science, especially as they relate to chemistry, and can guide the learning of others (for example, identify and respond to student ideas, use productive disciplinary representations, and know how ideas are organized and connected) in the following topics:
1.A.1 Matter and its interactions.
1.A.1.A The existence of atoms, now supported by evidence from modern instruments, was first postulated as a model that could explain both qualitative and quantitative observations about matter (e.g., Brownian motion, ratios of reactants and products in chemical reactions).
1.A.1.B Matter can be understood in terms of the types of atoms present and the interactions both between and within them. The states (i.e., solid, liquid, gas, or plasma), properties (e.g., hardness, conductivity), and reactions (both physical and chemical) of matter can be described and predicted based on the types, interactions, and motions of the atoms within it.
1.A.1.C Chemical reactions, which underlie so many observed phenomena in living and nonliving systems alike, conserve the number of atoms of each type but change their arrangement into molecules.
1.A.1.D Nuclear reactions involve changes in the types of atomic nuclei present and are key to the energy release from the sun and the balance of isotopes in matter.
1.A.2 Motion and stability.
1.A.2.A Interactions between any two objects can cause changes in one or both of them.
1.A.2.B The forces between objects is important for describing how their motions change, as well as for predicting stability or instability in systems at any scale.
1.A.2.C All forces between objects arise from a few types of interactions: gravity, electromagnetism, and the strong and weak nuclear interactions.
1.A.3 Energy and energy interactions.
1.A.3.A Interactions of objects can be explained and predicted using the concept of transfer of energy from one object or system of objects to another.
1.A.3.B The total energy within a defined system changes only by the transfer of energy into or out of the system.
1.A.4 Waves and their applications in technology.
1.A.4.A Waves are a repeating pattern of motion that transfers energy from place to place without overall displacement of matter. Light and sound are wavelike phenomena.
1.A.4.B Wave properties and the interactions of electromagnetic radiation with matter, scientists and engineers can design systems for transferring information across long distances, storing information, and investigating nature on many scales—some of them far beyond direct human perception.
1.B In addition to the core ideas of physical science a chemistry teacher candidate must have deep knowledge of chemical concepts in order to explain and guide the learning of others in the following topics:
1.B.1 The structure of matter based on quantum mechanics. This includes nuclear forces, modern atomic theory, organization of the atom, electron configuration, chemical bonds, periodic table, and elements, compounds and mixtures.
1.B.2 Interaction between the structure and properties of matter. This includes physical and chemical properties of matter, bonding, intermolecular forces, states of matter, gas laws, and solutions.
1.B.3 Interaction of energy and matter. This includes the nature of waves, electromagnetic waves, interactions of matter and electromagnetic radiation, spectroscopy, and nuclear reactions; fission, fusion and radioactivity.
1.B.4 Chemical reactions. This includes reactivity and reaction types (e.g., synthesis, decomposition, oxidation-reduction, acid-base), conservation of matter and stoichiometry, rates of reaction and equilibrium, and catalysis.
1.B.5 Energy. This includes laws of thermodynamics, heat and temperature, specific heat capacity, chemical potential, energy transfer in reactions (e.g., endothermic, exothermic, endergonic, and exergonic reactions), energy, forms, transfer, and transformation.
1.C In addition to the core ideas of physical science a chemistry teacher candidate must understand how chemistry concepts integrate with life science in order to explain and guide the learning of others in the following topics:
1.C.1 Carbon-based chemistry. This includes the unique reactivity of groupings of atoms, interactions of nucleophiles and electrophiles, electron flow in organic reactions, and the 3-dimensional structure of carbon-based molecules.
1.C.1.A Biomolecules. This includes structure, properties, and reactivity of proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates.
1.C.1.B Processing of carbon-based molecules by living organisms. This includes metabolism, toxicity, absorption, and excretion.
1.D In addition to the core ideas of physical science a chemistry teacher candidate must understand how chemistry concepts integrate with earth and space science in order to explain and guide the learning of others in the following topics:
1.D.1. Processing of molecules by the environment and universe. This includes greenhouse gases, biogeochemical cycles, and energy flow.
1.D.2 Human impact on the environment. This includes pollution (e.g., plastics, heavy metals, and other toxins), ocean acidification, environmental protection, green technologies, and societal energy resources.
1.E Demonstrate the ability to use mathematical concepts, computer analysis, and modeling to better explain and illustrate chemical phenomena and guide the learning and use of these tools by others in the following topics:
1.E.1 Use of mathematics to support chemical understanding.
1.E.2 Use of computers to support chemical understanding. This includes using computer programs to represent, model, analyze data, and communicate data and results from experiments.
1.E.3 Use of models to support chemical understanding. This includes using models to visualize chemical behavior and molecular structure and understand that all models have limitations with respect to how accurately they represent reality.
1.F Understand the disciplinary core ideas of engineering, technology, and application of science especially in relation to chemistry.
1.F.1 Demonstrate sufficient knowledge of engineering design to be able to guide others in learning the material.
1.F.1.A Understand the design process—engineers’ basic approach to problem solving—involves many different practices.
1.F.1.B Understand they include problem definition, model development and use, investigation, analysis and interpretation of data, application of mathematics and computational thinking, and determination of solutions.
1.F.1.C Understand these engineering practices incorporate specialized knowledge about criteria and constraints, modeling and analysis, and optimization and trade-offs.
1.F.2 Demonstrate sufficient knowledge of links among engineering, technology, science, and society to be able to guide others in learning the material.
1.F.2.A Understand new insights from science often catalyze the emergence of new technologies and their applications, which are developed using engineering design.
1.F.2.B Understand, in turn, new technologies open opportunities for new scientific investigations.
1.F.2.C Understand, together, advances in science, engineering, and technology can have—and indeed have had—profound effects on human society, in such areas as agriculture, energy resources and usage, transportation, health care, and communication, and on the natural environment.
1.F.2.D Understand each system can change significantly when new technologies are introduced, with both desired effects and unexpected outcomes.
2.0 Science and Engineering Practices
2.A Understand and apply Science and Engineering Practices in NGSS.
2.A.1 Ask questions (for science) and define problems (for engineering).
2.A.2 Develop and use models.
2.A.3 Plan and carry out investigations.
2.A.4 Analyze and interpret data.
2.A.5 Use mathematics and computational thinking.
2.A.6 Construct explanations (for science) and design solutions (for engineering).
2.A.7 Engage in argument from evidence.
2.A.8 Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information.
2.B Have experience with and model the practices by which scientists and engineers develop and refine ideas.
2.C Understand and apply the progressions in Appendix F, Scientific and Engineering Practices in NGSS.
2.D Collaborate with other content-area experts and STEM professionals to solve real-world problems, to promote equitable opportunities (see Appendix D) for in-depth experiences, and to include different perspectives.
2.E Demonstrate the ability to guide the learning of others in applying chemistry concepts locally and generating awareness of STEM career pathways.
3.0 Crosscutting Concepts
3.A Understands and can explain the disciplinary core ideas, can guide the learning of others (for example, identify and respond to student ideas, use productive disciplinary representations, and know how ideas are organized and connected), and explain how the Crosscutting Concepts bridge disciplinary boundaries, uniting core ideas throughout the fields of science and engineering as described in Appendix G, Section 2, Crosscutting Concepts Matrix of the NGSS.
3.A.2 Cause and effect.
3.A.3 Scale, proportion, and quantities.
3.A.4 Systems and systems models.
3.A.5 Energy and matter; flows, cycles, and conservation.
3.A.6 Structure and function.
3.A.7 Stability and change.
3.B Have experience with and model the application of Crosscutting Concepts by which scientists and engineers develop and refine ideas.
3.C Understand and apply the progressions in Appendix G, Section 2, Crosscutting Concepts Matrix of the NGSS.
3.D Understand the nature of science, and be able to address student misconceptions, as described in Appendix H, Understanding the Scientific Enterprise: The Nature of Science in the NGSS.
4.0 Science-specific Instructional Methodology
4.A Base teaching decisions and materials on findings published in the science and chemical education research literature.
4.B Explicit preparation in investigation-based chemistry instruction that leads to the ability to facilitate and guide the investigations of others. This includes using multiple data collection platforms and analysis tools such as analytical instruments and computer modeling.
4.C Incorporate instructional materials and teaching strategies to create a community of diverse student learners who can construct meaning from scientific experiences and possess a disposition for further inquiry and learning in Appendix D, All Standards, All Students in NGSS.
4.D Anticipate learner ideas in the planning of instruction, identify students’ specific prior knowledge and skills on which instruction can be built, monitor the development of student understanding, interpret student needs, develop responsive actions to meet these needs, and provide multiple opportunities for students to practice their learning.
4.E Integrate the Disciplinary Core Ideas, Crosscutting Concepts, and Science and Engineering Practices to immerse students in the manner in which scientific and engineering ideas are developed and refined.
4.E.2 Implement the Science and Engineering Practices in Appendix F in NGSS.
4.E.3 Implement the progressions of the Crosscutting Concepts across the grades in order to help students deepen their understanding of the Disciplinary Core Ideas and develop coherent and scientifically-based view of the world in Appendix G, Section 2, Crosscutting Concepts Matrix in NGSS.
4.F Understand and be able to appropriately respond to potential safety hazards in different learning environments, e.g., laboratory, classroom, or field.
4.F.1 Establish, model, and enforce laboratory safety (including chemical storage and disposal of hazardous waste) in the science laboratory.
4.F.2 Demonstrate responsible use and disposal of live organisms according to Washington State law.
4.F.3 Develop a chemical hygiene plan.
4.F.4 Explain underlying principles that lead to laboratory safety policies including properties and reactivity of chemicals, toxicity, and how contaminants enter the body.
4.G Demonstrate an understanding of the CCSS for Mathematics and align instruction in science with instruction that students receive in mathematics, examples of which are described in Appendix L, Connections to the CCSS for Mathematics in NGSS.
4.H Demonstrate an understanding of the CCSS for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects and align instruction in science with instruction that students receive in English Language Arts, examples of which are described in Appendix M, Connections to the CCSS for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects in NGSS.