Deaf Education

Note: Candidates can only add this specialty endorsement to an existing teaching certificate (WAC 181-82A-207).

1.0 Foundations:
1.1 Models, theories, philosophies, and regulatory history that form the basis for special education of individuals with hearing loss.
a. Continuum of placement and services available for individuals with hearing loss.
b. Components of the Individual Education Plan (IEP).
c. Historical foundations, classic studies, major contributors, major legislation, and current issues related to knowledge and practice.
1.2 Variations in beliefs, traditions, and values across and within cultures and their effects of the relationships among child, family, and schooling.
1.3 Issues in definition and identification of individuals with hearing loss, including those from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds.
1.4 Issues, assurances, case law, and due process rights related to assessment, eligibility, and placement within a continuum of services.
1.5 Variety of ways different cultures understand individuals with hearing loss.
1.6 Current trends and issues in early intervention, early childhood education, and education of individuals with hearing loss.
1.7 Educational definitions, identification criteria, labeling issues, and incidence and prevalence figures for individuals with hearing loss.
1.8 Etiologies of hearing loss that can result in additional sensory, motor, and/or learning differences.
1.9 Current research related to deaf education, including best instructional practices for second language learners as determined by academic achievement.
1.10 Bilingualism and biculturalism and their impact on the learning environment.
1.11 Current best practices in the education of individuals with hearing loss.


2.0 Development and Characteristics of Learners:
2.1 Typical and atypical human growth and development.
2.2 Similarities and differences of individuals with and without hearing loss.
2.3 Similarities and differences among individuals with hearing loss.
2.4 Influence of stress and trauma, protective factors and resilience, and supportive relationships on the social and emotional development.
2.5 Cognitive development of individuals with hearing loss.
2.6 Impact of the onset of hearing loss, age of identification, and provision of services and education on the development of the individual.


3.0 Individual Learning Differences:
3.1 Impact of educational placement options with regard to cultural identity; communication mode; and academic and social-emotional development.
3.2 Cultural dimensions of hearing loss that may impact the individual.
3.3 Influence of families on the overall development of the individual with hearing loss.
3.4 Impact of hearing loss on learning and experience.
3.5 Impact of multiple disabilities on individuals with hearing loss.


4.0 Instructional Strategies and Planning:
4.1 Instructional strategies for teaching individuals with hearing loss including methods for increasing positive impact on student learning in reading, mathematics and written expression.
4.2 Learning strategies and study skills to acquire and demonstrate academic content.
4.3 Advantages and limitations of instructional strategies and practices for teaching
4.4 Strategies for integrating student initiated learning experiences into ongoing instruction.
4.5 Sources of specialized materials for individuals with hearing loss.
4.6 Current technologies available to enhance the education of individuals with hearing loss.
4.7 Strategies to provide accessibility and acceptance of individuals with hearing loss.


5.0 Learning Environments and Social Interactions:
5.1 Processes for establishing ongoing interactions of individuals with hearing loss with appropriate peers and role models.
5.2 Learner opportunities for interaction with communities of individuals with hearing loss on local, state, national, and global levels.
5.3 Learning environments that allow individuals to retain and appreciate their own and each others’ respective language and cultural heritage.


6.0 Language
6.1 Major concepts, theories, and research from applied linguistics and other language acquisition to construct learning environments that support native language (other than English) and English language literacy.
6.2 Communication features salient to the individual with hearing loss that are necessary to enhance cognitive, emotional, and social development.
6.3 Impact of early communication on the development of the individual with hearing loss.
6.4 Effects of sensory input on the development of language and cognition.
6.5 Major language components (i.e. phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics).
6.6 Communication modes used by and with individuals with hearing loss.
6.7 Current theories of language development in individuals with normal hearing and those with hearing loss.
6.8 Strategies to facilitate cognitive and communicative development in individuals with hearing loss.
6.9 Strategies for making use of residual hearing.


7.0 Instructional Planning:
7.1 Model programs, including career/vocational and transition, for individuals with hearing loss.
7.2 Natural supports in work and community environments.
7.3 Scope and sequence of general and special curricula, and materials, including the EALRs.
7.4 Theories and research that form the basis of curriculum development and instructional practice.
7.5 Roles and responsibilities of teachers, education interpreters, and support personnel in educational practice for individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing.


8.0 Assessment :
8.1 Specialized terminology used in assessing individuals with hearing loss.
8.2 Specialized procedures for evaluation, eligibility, placement, and program planning for individuals with hearing loss.
8.3 Specialized policies on referral and placement procedures for individuals with hearing loss.
8.4 Variety of language proficiency instruments and assessment.
8.5 Potential linguistic and cultural biases of assessment instruments and procedures and implements of appropriate modifications and accommodations.


9.0 Professional and Ethical Practice:
9.1 Personal, cultural and socio-economic biases and differences that affect one’s teaching.
9.2 Importance of the teacher serving as a model for individuals with hearing loss.
9.3 Continuum of lifelong professional development opportunities, methods to remain current regarding research-validated practice.
9.4 Professional organizations and publications that provide support for individuals with hearing loss, their families, and colleagues.


10.0 Communication and Collaboration:
10.1 Effective communication and collaboration with individuals, families, school personnel, and community members.
10.2 Strategies and resources to help address concerns of families of individuals with hearing loss.
10.3 Laws, policies/regulations, and ethical principles related to confidentiality.
10.4 Family/community education programs that provide information and resources concerning individuals with hearing loss.


11.0 Instructional Methodology:
11.1
Apply knowledge of best practices based on current research in deaf education.
11.2 Make appropriate instructional decisions based on program model and design, and select appropriate instructional strategies and materials in relation to specific program models.
11.3 Apply theories, philosophies, and models of practice to the education of individuals with hearing loss.
11.4 Apply theories and research of child development, both typical and atypical, with emphasis on cognitive, motor, social-emotional, behavioral,
11.5 Apply knowledge of cultural, linguistic and communication diversity recognizing that children are best understood in the contexts of family, culture, and society.
11.6 Apply knowledge of adaptive development in learning situations, family, and community settings.
11.7 Select, adapt, and use instructional strategies and materials according to characteristics of the learner.
11.8 Develop and select learning experiences and strategies that affirm and respect family, cultural, and societal diversity, including language differences.
11.9 Proficiency in the language(s) used to teach individuals with hearing loss.
11.10 Apply effective practices and strategies to plan, implement, adapt, and modify curriculum for multilevel classrooms with students from diverse backgrounds.
11.11 Apply effective practices and strategies for organizing and managing a variety of supportive learning environments, e.g., cooperative groups, independent learning, and individualized instruction.
11.12 Promote expressive and receptive literacy
11.13 Prepare individuals with hearing loss in the use of interpreting, transliterating, and/or real time captioning.
11.14 Apply first and second language teaching strategies to meet the needs of the individual with hearing loss.
11.15 Use strategies to facilitate integration into various settings.
11.16 Use appropriate methods to teach core subject areas, including reading, mathematics, and written expression.
11.17 Teach individuals with hearing loss to use self-assessment, problem solving, and other cognitive strategies to meet their needs.
11.18 Integrate language skills into all content areas.
11.19 Differentiate content-area instruction based on learner needs and language-proficiency levels.
11.20 Apply effective practices and strategies to plan, implement, adapt, and modify curriculum for multilevel classrooms with students from diverse backgrounds.
11.21 Apply effective practices and strategies for organizing and managing a variety of supportive learning environments, e.g., cooperative groups, independent learning and individualized instruction.
11.22 Use strategies for facilitating maintenance and generalization of skills across learning environments.
11.23 Use instructional time to positively impact student learning.
11.24 Use strategies that facilitate all transitions for individuals with hearing loss:
a. Early intervention to preschool
b. Preschool to elementary
c. Elementary to middle level
d. Middle level to high school
e. High school to beyond
f. Individualized alternative settings to school
g. Residential school for the deaf
11.25 Develop and select instructional content, resources, and strategies that respond to the state learning goals and to cultural, linguistic, and gender differences.
11.26 Choose and use technology in the instructional process incorporating it into the educational program.
11.27 Create an environment that encourages self-advocacy, increased independence, accessibility, and acceptance.
11.28 Modify the instructional environment to meet the physical cognitive, cultural, and communication needs of the individual with hearing loss.
11.29 Encompass incidental language experiences to fit the visual and other sensory needs of individuals with hearing loss.
11.30 Manage assistive/augmentative technology for individuals with hearing loss.
11.31 Select, adapt, and implement classroom management strategies considering deaf cultural factors.
11.32 Design a classroom environment that maximizes opportunities for visual and/or auditory learning for individuals with hearing loss.
11.33 Create a safe, equitable, positive, and supportive learning environment in which diversity is valued.
11.34 Design learning environments that encourage active participation in individual and group activities.
11.35 Mediate cultural issues among students within the learning environment.
11.36 Apply linguistic concepts to support language development.
11.37 Increase expressive and receptive communication proficiency in individuals with hearing loss.
11.38 Gather and analyze spoken and/or signed communication samples.
11.39 Apply effective practices and strategies to promote independent communication.
11.40 Integrate speech skills as consistent with educational philosophy into academic areas.
11.41 Plan and implement instruction for individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing and who have multiple disabilities and special needs.
11.42 Develop and select instructional content, resources, and strategies that respond to
11.43 Implement instruction that is explicitly connected to assessment results.
11.44 Develop and implement comprehensive, longitudinal IEPs in collaboration with team
11.45 Sequence, implement, and evaluate individual learning objectives which align with general curriculum including state learning goals, EALRs and GLEs incorporating modifications and
11.46 Involve the individual and family in setting instructional goals and monitoring progress.
11.47 Use analysis to prepare lesson plans based on unique educational needs that
11.48 Prepare lesson plans and organize materials for self and others:
11.49 Integrate related service goals and objectives into the educational
11.50 Administer assessment tools using the natural/native/preferred language of the individual with hearing loss
11.51 Gather relevant background information.
11.52 Develop and administer nonbiased, formal and informal assessments.
11.53 Utilize ongoing evaluation/assessment data to determine the effectiveness of
11.54 Use performance data and information from IEP and assessment teams to make or suggest
11.55 Select, adapt and modify individualized and state-wide assessments (Developmentally Appropriate WASL (DAW or portfolio) utilizing approved accommodations and alternative
11.56 Use assessment information in making eligibility, program, and placement decisions
11.57 Use functional behavioral assessment data to drive behavioral intervention planning for individuals with hearing loss.
11.58 Interact with a variety of individuals with hearing loss on an adult-to-adult level.
11.59 Participate in the professional activities in the field of education of individuals with hearing loss.
11.60 Demonstrate commitment to developing the highest education and quality-of-life potential of individuals with hearing loss.
11.61 Access professional organizations and publications (printed/electronic) that support individuals with hearing loss, their families, and colleagues.
11.62 Respect parents’ choices and goals for children/students and communicate effectively with parents about curricula and children’s progress.
11.63 Read and critically apply research and recommended practices in deaf education.
11.64 Use language effectively, including written, oral and/or sign language.
11.65 Collaborate with the IEP team to address the diverse communication needs of the
11.66 Provide families with information and support to make choices regarding communication
11.67 Use strategies to create positive connections between families and professionals.
11.68 Communicate with school personnel about the characteristics and needs of
11.69 Communicate effectively with families of students with hearing loss.
11.70 Use problem solving and conflict resolution skills to develop, implement and evaluate
11.71 Participate in planning for transitions in collaboration with families and other
11.72 Apply various models of consultation in diverse settings