Early Childhood Education Endorsement Competencies - Grades P-3

1.0 Understanding young children. The candidate understands and applies the concepts of how individuals grow, develop and learn, and provides learning opportunities that support the cognitive, social, emotional, linguistic, creative, and physical development of all children from birth through grade three (age eight).

1.A Demonstrates understanding of the theoretical and research foundations of how infants and children develop and learn.

1.B Demonstrates understanding and provides theoretical interpretations of how infants and young children differ in their development and approaches to learning.

1.C Demonstrates understanding of the role of attachment and relationships in child development and learning.

1.D Demonstrates understanding of brain development and how brain growth is affected by children’s early experiences.

1.E Demonstrates understanding of conditions that affect children’s development and learning, including risk factors, developmental variations, and developmental patterns of specific disabilities.

1.F Demonstrates understanding of the signs of emotional distress, child abuse, and neglect in young children and knowledge of appropriate responses.

1.G Demonstrates understanding of cultural and linguistic diversity and the significance of sociocultural and political contexts for development and learning.

2.0 Promoting child development and learning. The candidate promotes children’s cognitive, social, emotional, linguistic, creative and physical development by organizing and orchestrating the environment in ways that best facilitate the development and learning of the whole child.

2.A Demonstrates understanding of the multiple functions of play in early learning for building foundational skills in motor development, cognition, language/communication, interpersonal/intrapersonal knowledge, motivation and curiosity to learn, and regulation of emotions. 

2.B Demonstrates understanding of how to plan and engage young children in enriching activities that build upon their prior knowledge and experience to promote cognitive development.

2.C Demonstrates understanding of the stages of language development and second language acquisition, and how to provide learning experiences that promote the acquisition of language skills in young children, including providing a language and literacy rich environment.

2.D Demonstrates understanding of how to establish an environment that promotes social development and supports emotional needs and well-being in young children.

2.E Demonstrates understanding of how to create learning experiences that meet the individual physical needs of young children for movement, rest, play, fine and gross motor development, health, and fitness.

2.F Demonstrates understanding of how to facilitate positive dispositions and approaches toward learning by introducing children to a wide range of resources and opportunities for learning.

2.G Establishes and maintains a physically and psychologically safe, supportive, and healthy learning environment, encouraging good basic health practices, good nutrition, and safety in the context of culturally responsive practice.

2.H Establishes positive, supportive relationships with all children.

3.0 Observing, documenting, and assessing. The candidate uses a variety of assessment practices in collaboration with colleagues and families to guide the learning and holistic development of young children.

3.A Demonstrates understanding of how to use developmentally and culturally appropriate practices to observe, record, and assess young children's development and learning.

3.B Demonstrates understanding of progress monitoring, informal and formal assessment strategies for the purpose of setting goals and planning appropriate programs, environments, and interactions, and adapting for individual differences.

3.C Demonstrates understanding of how to evaluate and use standardized assessment tools, and integrate standardized data with other assessment data.

3.D Demonstrates understanding of how to engage children in developmentally appropriate self-assessment and goal setting.

3.E Demonstrates understanding of how to involve families in the assessment process and communicate assessment information with families.

3.F Demonstrates understanding of how to integrate assessment results from student support team as an active participant in the development and implementation of Individual Education Plan (IEP) and Individual Family Service Plan (IFSP) goals for children with special developmental and learning needs.  

4.0 Equity fairness diversity and cultural competence. The candidate understands how children and families differ in their perspectives and approaches to learning and creates access and opportunities that are culturally responsive for children from birth through grade three.

4.A Demonstrates understanding that children are best understood in the contexts of family, culture, and society.

4.B Demonstrates understanding of the interrelationships among culture, home language, and thought in helping young children develop and learn.

4.C Creates positive, equitable learning environments and experiences that reflect and respect culturally and linguistically diverse children and support home language preservation. 

4.D Understands the strengths, accomplishments, and values of children’s families and neighborhoods and the history and values that form the context in which their children grow by seeking out  people, experiences, research and other resources including culturally relevant literature.

4.E Understands differences in family structures and sociocultural background.

4.F Understands how family structure, culture, social, emotional, and political contexts may impact children’s participation in the educational setting.

4.G Views student diversity, including the cognitive, social, emotional, linguistic, creative, and physical variability of children as an opportunity for a richer social and learning environment, not as barriers to overcome.

5.0 Meaningful and integrated curriculum and instruction. The candidate designs and implements developmentally appropriate learning experiences that integrate within and across the discipline, and uses effective instructional strategies.  

5.A Demonstrates understanding of how to develop and implement meaningful, integrated learning experiences that focus on the whole child.

5.B Demonstrates understanding of how to create, select, and evaluate developmentally appropriate materials, equipment, and environments aligned with state standards, as well as, state and national early learning guidelines.

5.C Demonstrates understanding of how to evaluate, modify, and adapt instructional materials, strategies, and environments to meet the specific needs of all children, including those with disabilities, developmental delays, or special abilities.

5.D Demonstrates understanding of the rationale for implementing developmentally appropriate methods (e.g., play, project-based learning, hands-on experiences, a variety of grouping strategies, open-ended questioning, group discussion, problem solving, cooperative learning, inquiry experiences, and direct instruction) to help young children develop intellectual curiosity, solve problems, and make decisions.

5.E Selects, develops and evaluates topics of study that respect the learner’s intellectual integrity and emerging interests and builds a broad base of background knowledge. 

5.F Uses developmentally appropriate and effective classroom management practices, individual, group guidance, schedules, routines, transitions and problem-solving techniques to build classroom community and encourage positive social interaction among children, promote positive strategies of conflict resolution and techniques to develop personal self-control, self-motivation, and self-esteem.

5.G Incorporates strategies from multiple disciplines (for example, health, social services) into the design of intervention strategies and integrates goals from IEPs and IFSPs into daily activities and routines.

5.H Provides opportunities that support the physical, social, emotional, language, cognitive, and creative development of all young children. 

5.I Uses a variety of approaches to differentiate instruction and support the development of learning in individual children.

5.J Creates and modifies environments and experiences to meet the individual needs of all children, including children with disabilities, developmental delays, and special abilities.

6.0 Building family and community relationships and partnerships. The candidate knows and understands the importance of relationships with family and community and is able to create and maintain those relationships to support children’s learning and development.

6.A Demonstrates understanding of the central role of families of infants and young children in child development and learning.

6.B Demonstrates understanding of how to establish mutual nurturing relationships with infants and young children and their families.

6.C Demonstrates understanding of how to establish and maintain respectful and collaborative relationships with families.

6.D Demonstrates understanding of strategies for partnering effectively with families to inform and enhance support for children’s learning by listening to, observing, and learning from family members, including conferencing, consulting, and home visits.

6.E Demonstrates understanding of how to work effectively with diverse families and community volunteers in learning experiences.

6.F Demonstrates understanding of how to assist families in supporting children’s learning and development at home.

6.G Demonstrates understanding of how to work effectively with families in decision-making roles and on policy issues.

6.H Demonstrates understanding of how to assist families in obtaining support and services to help their children.

7.0 Professionalism. The candidate knows and understands the relationship of professionalism with practice, and demonstrates professionalism.

7.A Demonstrates understanding of characteristics of children, families, professionals and environments; current issues and trends; legal issues; and legislation and other public policies affecting children, families, and programs for young children and the early childhood profession.

7.B Demonstrates understanding of early childhood education, and its historical, philosophical, and social foundations to inform teaching practice.

7.C Knows and understands the professional code of ethical conduct, including FERPA and HIPPA.

7.D Seeks out opportunities to grow professionally through the use of appropriate professional literature, organizations, resources, and experiences to inform and improve practice.

7.E Demonstrates understanding of how to establish and maintain positive, collaborative relationships with colleagues, other professionals, and families, and work effectively as a member of a professional team.

7.F Demonstrates understanding of how to advocate on behalf of young children and their families, improve quality of programs and services for young children, and enhance professional status and working conditions for early childhood educators.

7.G Demonstrates understanding of basic principles of administration, organization, and operation of early childhood programs, including supervision of staff and volunteers and program evaluation.

7.H Demonstrate understanding of the laws and terms governing infants and young children with special needs, and the implications for the teacher.

7.I Demonstrates understanding of how to collaboratively work with the student/family support team to assess children’s progress, design and implement the intervention, and report results.

7.J Demonstrates understanding of appropriate resources to learn about exceptionalities in infants, young children, and families, as well as special family/learning needs and appropriate instructional strategies.

7.K Demonstrates understanding of the role of the teacher in assessing and referring children and families to appropriate school based, community health or social service agencies when necessary.

7.L Demonstrates understanding of the mandatory requirements for teachers in reporting suspected cases of child abuse or neglect to the appropriate authorities and understand reporting protocols in the workplace.

8.0 Reflective practice. The candidate, in collaboration with colleagues, regularly analyzes, evaluates, and synthesizes his/her teaching practice to make appropriate changes that more fully serve infants and young children.

8.A Reflects on practice and continually self-assesses and evaluates the effects of the teacher’s choices and action on young children, parents, and other professionals as a basis for program planning and modification, and continuing professional development.

8.B Considers theory, research, assessment information, and perspectives of others to make informed decisions about instructional strategies and program content.

8.C Demonstrates understanding of one’s own personal, social, and cultural contexts, and reflects on how these contexts affect teaching practice.

9.0 Knowing essential concepts of content areas Candidates understand and apply knowledge of the arts, English language arts, health and fitness, mathematics, science, and social studies.

9.A The Arts (Dance, Music, Theatre, and Visual Arts). The candidate understands the basic content and function and the value of dance, music, theatre, and visual arts as primary media for communication, inquiry, and insight. The candidate promotes the abilities of children from birth through grade three as they learn to express themselves through the arts.

9.A.1. Understands the developmental foundation of learning (birth through eight) in the arts, such as fine motor skills, eye-hand coordination, large motor skills, balance, musical discrimination (rhythm, pitch, and volume), and sensory systems.

9.A.2. Understands the ways that the arts impact and interact with learning and development.

9.A.3. Supports young children in the use of dance, music, theatre, and visual arts to reflect culture, family, community, and history.

9.A.4. Understands the value of and applies basic arts knowledge, elements, and skills used in dance, music, theatre, and visual arts, such as rhythm, beat, expression, character, energy, color, balance, and harmony.

9.A.5. Understands how young children develop and demonstrate thinking skills using artistic processes.

9.A.6. Understands how young children develop and use dance, music, theatre, and visual arts to communicate ideas and feelings for a variety of purposes and audiences.

9.A.7. Understands how young children use the arts (dance, music, theatre, and visual arts) to make connections within and across the arts, to other disciplines and developmental domains.

9.A.8. Understands the value of seeking and accessing dance, music, theatre, and visual arts specialists in the school, district, community, or region.

9.A.9. Understands how learning in and through the arts supports the development of 21st Century Skills such as creativity, communication, collaboration, critical thinking, and Habits of Mind such as persistence, observation, and reflection, and how these capacities support success in and out of school.

9.A.10. Understands how learning in and through the arts supports academic and social/emotional learning for all students, by providing multiple pathways to learning concepts and demonstrating understanding across all subject areas, and by helping students to make deeper and more personally meaningful connections to learning.

9.B Language and Literacy. The candidate demonstrates proficiency in the use of oral and written English and understands and communicates ideas, information, and perspectives in reading, writing, speaking, and listening. The teacher promotes the abilities and interests of young children as they develop literacy skills in different genres and for different purposes.

9.B.1 Understands the developmental foundations of language and literacy (birth through eight), such as acquisition of speech, receptive/expressive language, and symbolic and non-symbolic communication, progression in grammar and syntax, use of language for a variety of purposes,  acquisition of reading and writing skills.

9.B.2 Understands the ways that language and literacy impact and interact with learning and development.

9.B.3 Understanding of language and language development.

9.B.3.A Understands early language development, such as receptive language (response to familiar sounds and voices, directions, and requests) and expressive language (vocalizations, babbling, single words), use of language, acquisition of vocabulary, and early grammar.

9.B.3.B Understands how to integrate reading, writing, speaking, listening, viewing, and thinking.

9.B.3.C Understands the grammar of Standard American English including semantics, syntax, morphology, and phonology.

9.B.3.D Understands communication theory, language development, and the role of language in learning.

9.B.3.E Understands how the linguistic/rhetorical patterns of other languages affect the development and expression of written and oral language.

9.B.3.F Understands diversity in language use, e.g., grammar, patterns, and dialects across cultures, ethnic groups, geographic regions, and social roles.

9.B.3.G Understands the benefits of bilingualism and the special needs of young English language learners, building on the home language systems that children have already developed.

9.B.4 Understanding of oral, pictorial, gestural, and aural communication.

9.B.4.A Understands that gesture, speaking and listening are developmental processes.

9.B.4.B Understands how infants and young children develop the multiple modes of communication necessary for successful social interaction, including gestural, speaking and listening skills.

9.B.4.C Understands the interrelationship between gesture, speaking and listening.

9.B.4.D Understands the role of metacognition in use of gesture, listening and speaking, and peripheral participation in communication.

9.B.5 Understanding of reading processes.

9.B.5.A Understands the development as precursors of reading, such as  imitation of vocalizations and sounds, vocalization of familiar words when read to, and language play (rhyming games and songs).

9.B.5.B Understands the interrelationships of reading and writing.

9.B.5.C Understands the role of metacognition in reading and writing.

9.B.5.D Understands the essential components of reading (phonics, word recognition, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension).

9.B.5.E Understands the instructional progression of concepts of print (e.g., holding a book, understanding that print carries meaning, directionality, tracking of print, letter representation, word, and sentence).

9.B.5.F Demonstrate knowledge of phonemic awareness (e.g., segmentation, blending, substitution); phonics (e.g., sound symbol correspondence, blending, and word families); fluency (e.g., rate, accuracy, prosody); indirect and direct vocabulary instruction (e.g., specific word instruction and word-learning strategies, using resources, word parts, and context clues); comprehension skills and strategies (e.g., monitoring, summarizing, generating and answering questions).

9.B.5.G Demonstrate understanding of the variability in reading levels among children in the same grade and within a child across the essential components of reading.

9.B.5.H Understand the reasons for using, and how to use, a wide range of assessment tools and practices (e.g., individual and group standardized tests, individual and group informal classroom assessments, and technology-based tools).

9.B.5.I Demonstrate understanding of instructional interventions for individuals and flexible groups.

9.B.5.J Understand how to interpret assessment data to plan and revise effective instruction that meets the needs of all students, including those at different developmental stages and those from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds.

9.B.6 Knowledge and understanding writing processes.

9.B.6.A Understands how young children develop as writers (e.g., marking, scribbling, imitating letters, use of symbols, dictation, use of motor practice, etc.).

9.B.6.B Understands the writing process, its components (prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, publishing), and its recursive, interactive, and collaborative nature.

9.B.6.C Understands the traits of effective writing (e.g., development of ideas, organization, voice, word choice, sentence structure, and conventions).

9.B.6.D Understands that young children write for different purposes and to different audiences. 

9.B.7 Knowledge and understanding of children’s literature.

9.B.7.A Reads and understands a broad range of literature (nonfiction and fiction, historical and contemporary), including  works representing and authored by a range of cultures and ethnicities globally and within the United States; works written specifically for children and young adult readers; and works providing both male and female representation and authorship).

9.B.7.B Understands how to select and use literature based on the developmental, cultural, and linguistic  needs and interests of young children.

9.B.7.C Understands the genres of literature.

9.B.8 Knowledge of media and technology.

9.B.8.A Understands how media and technology influence culture and young children’s actions and communication.

9.B.8.B Understands how to integrate the use of technological tools to facilitate literacy development.

9.C Health and Fitness. The candidate understands comprehensive health and fitness education of children from birth through grade three which include the dimensions of wellness, such as physical, emotional, and social well-being contributing to a healthy lifestyle.

9.C.1 Demonstrate general understanding of how learners grow and develop kinesthetically birth through age eight.

9.C.1.A Understand basic motor learning development and progressions through age eight.

9.C.2 Demonstrate general understanding of basic motor skills, rhythms, physical activities, and physical fitness.

9.C.2.A Demonstrate general knowledge of the relationship of motor activity to neurological development.

9.C.2.B Demonstrate basic awareness of sensory needs, appropriate integration, and modifications as needed.

9.C.2.C Apply appropriate instructional cues, prompts, and feedback to facilitate the development of basic motor skills, rhythms, physical activities, and physical fitness.

9.C.3 Understand the effects of health and fitness choices and habits on quality of life.

9.C.3.A Demonstrate basic understanding of the relationship of nutrition to cognitive, physical, and emotional well-being.

9.C.3.B Demonstrate general knowledge of the prevention and management of common illnesses, diseases, and injuries.

9.C.4 Demonstrate basic understanding of safety, legal issues, and risk management related to instructional practice in health and fitness.

9.C.4.A Prepare a safe environment to enhance physical and emotional health in physical activity.

9.C.5 Demonstrate understanding of cultural competence in a comprehensive health and fitness education program.

9.C.6 Demonstrate general understanding of the implications for movement, health and fitness instruction, and development of healthy habits of physical, cognitive, and perceptual exceptionalities.

9.C.6.A Demonstrate ability to access resources for adapting curriculum to individual student needs such as developmentally appropriate motor skills.

9.C.6.B Demonstrate ability to access resources for adapting instruction to the setting such as classroom, gymnasium, and playground.

9.C.7 Demonstrate basic knowledge of current trends in technology in the classroom setting (e.g., pedometers, apps, and active gaming trends).

9.C.8 Demonstrate a basic understanding of the Washington Health and Fitness State Learning Standards.

9.C.8.A Recognize strategies to connect Common Core State Standards into health and fitness.

9.C.8.B Identify resources available on the OSPI health and fitness web site.

9.D Mathematics. Candidates possess a deep understanding of children’s development and mathematical and spatial learning.

9.D.1 Understand the developmental progression of mathematical learning from birth to eight with the infancy skills of number sense and spatial perception to early childhood skills of pre-numeracy, such as recognition of shapes, visual matching, counting, knowledge of numbers, visual recognition of numbers, ordering, sorting, classifying, sequencing, creation of two- and three-dimensional objects, creating and expanding repeated reasoning, and spatial rotation.

9.D.2 Understand and apply the fundamental principles, concepts, and procedures related to mathematical problem solving, exploration, and reasoning, including processes and skills related to using mathematical language to communicate relationships and concepts, adaptive reasoning, strategic competence, procedural fluency, and productive disposition.

9.D.3 Standards for Mathematical Practices: Demonstrate ability to embed CCSS-M Mathematical Practices in the instructional process to deepen conceptual understanding.

9.D.3.A Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.

9.D.3.B Reason abstractly and quantitatively.

9.D.3.C Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.

9.D.3.D Model with mathematics.

9.D.3.E Use appropriate tools strategically.

9.D.3.F Attend to precision.

9.D.3.G Look for and make use of structure.

9.D.3.H Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.

9.D.4 Counting and Cardinality / Number and Operations in Base Ten & Fractions: Demonstrate a conceptual understanding of and procedural facility and application of operations, number systems, and properties.

9.D.4.A Demonstrates understanding of the progression of learning that begins with the base-ten number system, place value, and operations thereof, builds into understanding of and operations with fractions and rational numbers, and extends to understanding of and operations with real numbers.

9.D.4.B Understand and apply ratios, proportional thinking, and other methods for representing and solving mathematical and real world problems.

9.D.5 Operations and Algebraic Thinking: Demonstrate a conceptual understanding of and procedural facility with arithmetic properties and their application to algebra concepts.

9.D.5.A Understand and apply properties of mathematical operations, strategies for computing and estimating solutions, and methods for modeling mathematical operations.

9.D.5.B Solve and graphically represent real life and mathematical problems using numerical and algebraic expressions, equations, inequalities, and systems of equations and inequalities.

9.D.5.C Understand the connections between proportional relationships, lines, and linear equations and use them to solve real world and mathematical problems.

9.D.6 Measurement and Data: Understand measurement systems and units, concepts related to geometric measurement, and tools and techniques used to solve measurement problems.

9.D.6.A Apply standard units of measurement and estimation.

9.D.6.B Understand processes and skills related to collecting, interpreting, and representing data.

9.D.7 Geometry: Demonstrate a conceptual understanding of geometric properties and relationships as they apply to congruence, similarity, and geometric figures.

9.D.7.A Solve real life and mathematical problems involving lines, area, surface area, and volume.

9.D.7.B Classify, visualize, and describe two-dimensional figures and three-dimensional objects as well as the relationship among them.

9.D.7.C Apply geometric concepts to model real world situations.

9.D.8 Modeling and Technology: Connect mathematics with real life problems through the use of mathematical modeling and technology.

9.D.8.A Construct mathematical models in the content strands (e.g., look at a real life situation and transpose it into a mathematical problem, solve the problem, and interpret the solution in real life.)

9.D.8.B Use the appropriate technology available to explore conjectures, visualize, and analyze the mathematics, develop concepts and apply them to a context, and use technology to model in the real world.

9.D.9 Mathematics Instructional Methodology: Candidates possess a deep understanding of how students learn mathematics and of the pedagogical knowledge specific to mathematics teaching and learning.

9.D.9.A Select, use, and determine suitability of the available mathematics curricula, teaching materials, and other resources including manipulatives for the learning of mathematics for all students.

9.D.9.B Demonstrate ability to present mathematical concepts using multiple representations (e.g., numerical, graphical, analytical, and contextual).

9.D.9.C Demonstrate the ability to guide student discourse in mathematical problem solving, argumentation (creation and critiquing), literacy, and in-depth conceptual understanding.

9.D.9.D Demonstrate knowledge of learning progressions, including conceptual and procedural milestones and common misconceptions, within each content domain and connections to instruction.

9.D.9.D.1 Demonstrate knowledge of major, supporting, and additional clusters for each grade level.

9.D.9.D.2 Demonstrate an understanding of the concept of mathematical rigor including conceptual understanding, procedural skill and fluency, and application.

9.D.9.D.3 Demonstrate an understanding of coherent connections within clusters at a grade level and the progression from grade level to grade level that builds on previous learning.

9.D.9.E Engage in developmentally and culturally responsive teaching of mathematics that minimizes power and status issues, nurtures a positive mathematics disposition, and utilizes students’ cultural funds of knowledge and experiences as resources for lessons.

9.E Science. The candidate works with their students to build the interrelationships among science, technology, engineering, mathematics (STEM), and society; by applying fundamental concepts related to Disciplinary Core Ideas (earth and space science, the life sciences, physical sciences, and engineering design); and promotes the scientific abilities of all children (Appendix D, All Standards, All Students) from birth through eight as they acquire new knowledge through the use of Crosscutting Concepts and Science and Engineering Practices in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS).

9.E.1 Applies the developmental and social foundations of learning (birth through eight), specifically as they relate to science and engineering practices, mathematical thinking, and language.

9.E.2 Uses the Crosscutting Concepts as an organizational framework for connecting core ideas across the earth and space sciences, the life sciences, physical sciences, and engineering design.

9.E.2.A Patterns.

9.E.2.B Cause and effect.

9.E.2.C Scale, proportion, and quantity.

9.E.2.D Systems and systems models.

9.E.2.E Energy and matter; flows, cycles, and conservation.

9.E.2.F Structure and function.

9.E.2.G Stability and change.

9.E.3 Demonstrates knowledge of and be able to model with grade-/age-appropriate, hands-on experiences the Science and Engineering Practices to help all students (see Appendix D, All Standards, All Students) understand the Crosscutting Concepts and Disciplinary Core Ideas of science and the relationship between engineering and science in Appendix I, Engineering Design in the NGSS.

9.E.4 Engages students in Science and Engineering Practices to facilitate learning the Disciplinary Core Ideas, Science and Engineering Practices, and Crosscutting Concepts.

9.E.4.A Asking questions (for science) and defining problems (for engineering).

9.E.4.B Developing and using models.

9.E.4.C Planning and carrying out investigations.

9.E.4.D Analyzing and interpreting data.

9.E.4.E Using mathematics and computational thinking.

9.E.4.F Constructing explanations (for science) and designing solutions (for engineering).

9.E.4.G Engaging in argument from evidence.

9.E.4.H Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information.

9.E.5 Engages in instruction that integrates Disciplinary Core Ideas in Appendix E with Crosscutting Concepts in Appendix G and Science and Engineering Practices in Appendix F in the NGSS.

9.E.6 Designs instruction that targets grade level standards and reflects the learning progressions identified in the NGSS.

9.E.7 Understands and integrates the use of appropriate tools, including technological tools e.g., e-tools and interactive science notebooks.

9.E.8 Develops knowledge of and applies safety precautions and procedures relative to science investigations e.g., student eye protection, safe storage of chemicals, and equipment care and maintenance. Demonstrates responsible use and disposal of live organisms according to Washington State law.

9.E.9 Develops an understanding of how science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines are interrelated to each other, society, the workplace, and the environment in Appendix J, Science, Technology, Society and the Environment of the NGSS; and how they promote equitable learning opportunities for all students in Appendix D, All Standards, All Students in the NGSS.

9.E.10 Knows and understands the interactions between culture and science, and the contributions of diverse individuals to the development of science and technology, and how science and technology have affected individuals, cultures, and societies throughout human history in Appendix H, Nature of Science in the NGSS.

9.F Social Studies. The candidate understands the interrelationships among the social sciences; uses historical, geographical, economic, and political concepts and modes of inquiry; and promotes the abilities of children from birth through grade three as they begin to experience, think about, and make informed decisions as members of a culturally diverse democratic society and interdependent world.

9.F.1 Developmental Foundations: Understands the developmental foundations of social studies learning (birth through eight), including differentiation of past, present, and future, awareness of family characteristics and functions, interdependence of individuals, families, neighborhoods, and communities, awareness of their own and others’ culture.

9.F.2 Social Studies and Development: Understands the ways that social studies impacts and interacts with learning and development.

9.F.3 Civics: Establishes a framework for thoughtful and reflective participatory citizenship and civic decision-making by an understanding of government, law, and politics.

9.F.3.A Key ideals and principles of the United States, including those in the Declaration of Independence, Constitution, and Bill of Rights.

9.F.3.B The purposes, functions, and organization of governments and laws, such as local government (mayors, city councils, school boards) and how and why state, tribal, and federal governments make, interpret, and enforce rules and laws.

9.F.3.C The rights and responsibilities of thoughtful participatory citizenship and civic involvement.

9.F.3.D The nature, functions, and organization of families, neighborhoods and communities.

9.F.4 Economics: Comprehends economic concepts and systems and the interactions among economy and individuals, households, businesses, governments, and societies.

9.F.4.A The need to make choices among wants and needs and evaluate the outcomes of those choices, as embodied in concepts such as scarcity, decision-making, opportunity costs, factors, productive resource, values and beliefs.

9.F.4.B Supply and demand, prices, profits, incentives, specialization and trade and globalization.

9.F.4.C How the government affects the economy through taxation.

9.F.4.D The economic issues and problems that all societies face, such sustainability and the distribution of wealth.

9.F.5 Geography: Comprehends how geographic features and human cultures shape and impact environments.

9.F.5.A The physical characteristics, cultural characteristics and location of places and regions, including patterns of human settlements.

9.F.5.B The use of maps/geographic tools.

9.F.5.C The interactions among humans, cultures, environments and global interdependence.

9.F.6 History: Comprehends how neighborhoods, communities, and societies have changed over time.

9.F.7 Pedagogy to Operationalize the Social Studies and Promote Civic Behaviors: Exhibit necessary social studies-specific pedagogical skills.

9.F.7.A Demonstrate the skills to break down social studies concepts for the developmental level of elementary students (e.g., making abstract concepts concrete, examples, use of students’ funds of knowledge).

9.F.7.B Facilitate a variety of classroom discussion formats.

9.F.7.C  Model and create classroom environments where students practice skills of inquiry.

9.F.7.C.1 Listening to multiple perspectives.

9.F.7.C.2 Developing questions and planning investigations.

9.F.7.C.3 Applying disciplinary concepts and tools.

9.F.7.C.4 Evaluating sources and using evidence.

9.F.7.C.5 Communicating conclusions (stating a position supported by evidence).

9.F.7.C.6 Taking informed action (participating in and following a discussion).

9.F.7.D Employ decision-making processes used in a democratic society.

9.F.7.D.1 Modeling, teaching, and leading student reflection on democratic decision-making processes.

9.F.7.D.2 Teaching the variety of decision-making strategies used in governments and businesses.

9.F.7.E Invite students into the process of civic engagement.

9.F.7.E.1 Demonstrating a variety of community involvement skills to enhance social studies instruction.

9.F.7.E.2 Involving students as active citizens in community.

9.F.7.E.3 Involving the community in civic engagement with students.

9.F.7.E.4 Integrating the resources of the community.

9.F.7.F Access and develop classroom-based assessments to monitor and assess social studies content knowledge and civic behaviors.

9.F.7.G Engage students in activities on global issues (e.g., sustainability, climate, conflict, economic patterns, global health, cause and effect, etc.).