Middle Level Humanities - Grades 4-9

Candidates understand and use the central concepts, tools of inquiry, standards, and structures of humanities, and they create meaningful learning experiences that develop all middle level learners’ competence in English Language Arts and Social Studies knowledge and skills.


1.0 English Language Arts: Candidates know and understand the English Language. They are able to read, write, speak, listen, and visually represent.

1.A Understand the grammar of Standard American English including semantics, syntax, morphology, and phonology.
1.B Understand how to integrate reading, writing, speaking, listening, viewing and thinking.
1.C Understand the role of reflection, analysis, evaluation, and goal setting in English language arts.
1.D Understanding the fundamentals of first and second language acquisition and development and that the linguistic/rhetorical patterns of other languages affect the written and oral expression of diverse learners.
1.E Understand diversity in language use, e.g., grammar, patterns, and dialects across cultures, ethnic groups, geographic regions, gender, and social roles.

2.0 Knowledge and Understanding of Reading Processes: Candidates know and understand the processes, purposes, and practical aspects of teaching reading.

2.A Understand the essential components of reading (phonics, word recognition, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension).
2.B Understand and articulate how to use meta-cognition process of reading for a variety of purposes, including strategies useful before, during, and after reading (such as characters, plot, setting, themes, and genres).
2.C Understand and construct meaning from wide variety of culturally relevant literary and expository text including fiction, non-fiction, poetry, and drama.
2.D Understand and articulate a wide range of strategies used to comprehend, analyze, interpret, and evaluate a wide variety of literary, argumentative, narrative, and expository texts.
2.E Demonstrate knowledge of selecting reading assessment tools to match the instructional purpose.
2.F Demonstrate how to use a wide range of reading assessment tools and practices that range from individual and group standardized tests to individual and group informal classroom assessment strategies, including technology-based assessment tools.
2.G Demonstrate understanding of the reasons for using a wide range of assessment tools and practices (e.g., individual and group standardized tests, individual and group informal classroom assessments, and technology-based tools).
2.H Demonstrate understanding of interpreting assessment results to inform instruction based on assessment data, identify students’ proficiencies and difficulties.

3.0 Knowledge and Understanding of the Process of Writing: Candidates know and understand the processes, purposes, and practical aspects of teaching writing.

3.A Understand the writing process, its components (prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, publishing), and its recursive, interactive, and collaborative nature.
3.B Understand conventions of spelling, capitalization, punctuation, proper word usage and grammar.
3.C Understand how mode (expository, persuasive, and narrative) and form (such as research paper, editorial, memoir) shape writing.
3.D Understand how audience (groups of professionals), purpose (such as entertaining or explaining), and form (such as research paper, editorial, memoir) shape writing.
3.E Understand strategies for writing.
3.E.1 Finding, selecting, and refining topics for research projects.
3.E.2 Locating, working with, and documenting reliable sources for research projects.
3.E.3 Paraphrasing, summarizing, quoting sources, citing, and acknowledging sources in a text.
3.F Understand methods of developing text that are clear, concise, and coherent.

4.0 Knowledge and Understanding of Literary Text: Candidates know and understand an extensive range of literary texts.

4.A Read and understand a broad range of literary texts; such as critical biography, short story, poetry, and drama.
4.A.1 Works representing and authored by a range of cultures and ethnicity globally and within the United States.
4.A.2 Works written specifically for children and young adult readers.
4.A.3 Works providing both male and female representation and authorship.
4.B Understand the elements of literature.
4.B.1 Structure (e.g., exposition, denouement, blank verse).
4.B.2 Literary and rhetorical devices (e.g., flashbacks, foreshadowing, metaphor).
4.B.3 Points of view, tones, voices, moods (e.g., diction, word choice).
4.B.4 Development of characters, plot, setting, central ideas, themes, formal, stylistic, and thematic characteristics of major literary works, genres, movements and periods and of major authors of literary texts.
4.B.5 Historical, social, cultural, and political contexts and influences of literary texts.

5.0 Knowledge and Understanding of Communication: Candidates know and understand the processes, purposes, and practical aspects of teaching communication.

5.A Characteristics of various types of listening and speaking, such as interviewing and empathic listening.
5.B Barriers to listening, such as listening only to what is considered important, and methods of listening actively, such as restating and encouraging.
5.C Types of speech delivery, such as impromptu, and methods of managing speech anxiety and apprehension, such as visualizing success.
5.D Forms and functions of verbal and nonverbal interpersonal communication, such as clarifying and validating.
5.E Individual, social, and cultural factors that influence interpersonal communication, such as internal and external noise and perceptions of self and others.
5.F Large- and small-group dynamics and factors that influence group communication, such as group composition and group members' roles.
5.G Strategies for managing conflicts, solving problems, and making decisions in large and small groups, such as compromising and collaborating.
5.H Understand how to communicate through a wide variety of media and non-print materials (e.g., digital slide shows, web pages, digital portfolios).

6.0 Social Studies: Candidates know and understand the Social Studies Essential Academic Learning Requirements. They are able to perceive systems of interaction, exchange, space, and time within and between peoples.

6.A Understand diverse perceptions (e.g., historical, cultural, or regional) of interaction, exchange, space, and time.
6.B Understand the development of social efficacy as a continuous and higher order thinking process for civic participation.

7.0 Civics: Candidates understand and apply knowledge of government, law, politics and the nation’s fundamental documents to make decisions about local, regional, national,
and international issues and to demonstrate thoughtful, participatory citizenship.

7.A Understand key democratic ideals and constitutional principles of the United States as expressed in the foundational documents.
7.B Understand the purposes, function, and structure of governments, laws, and differing political systems.
7.C Understand the rights and responsibilities of citizenship and civic involvement.
7.D Understand the purposes and organization of international relationships and United States foreign policy.

8.0 Economics: Candidates understand and apply knowledge of economic concepts and systems to explain the interactions between economy and individuals, households, businesses, governments, and societies.

8.A Understand that people have to make choices among needs and wants and evaluate the outcomes of those choices.
8.B Understand how economic systems function.
8.C Understand governments’ role in an economy.
8.D Understand the economic issues and problems that all societies face.

9.0 Geography: Candidates understand and apply the concepts of place, region, location, and movement to demonstrate knowledge of how geographic features and human cultures shape and impact environments.

9.A Understand how to construct and use geographical tools (e.g., maps, charts, diagrams, models, GIS) to explain spatial arrangements of people, places, resources and environments.
9.B Understand the role of interactions among humans, cultures, and environments.

10.0 History: Candidates understand and apply knowledge of historical chronology, eras, turning points, major ideas, individuals, and themes of history in order to evaluate the role of historical trends and how they shape the present and future.

10.A Understand historical chronology including the ability to understand how themes and developments help to define eras.
10.A.1 Understand key themes and developments in world history including civilizations on two or more continents (8000 B.C.E. to 650 C.E.).
10.A.2 Understand key themes and development of societies in two or more world regions from 650 C.E. to 1450 C.E.
10.A.3 Understand key themes and developments in Washington state history in the following eras: Northwest Coastal and Plateau Tribes; Maritime and overland exploration and trade; Immigration and settlement; Territorial and treaty-making era; Railroads, resources, labor; Great Depression and World War II; Cold War, Civil Rights; Contemporary Washington history.
10.A.4 Understand key themes and development of United States history to 1900: Indigenous people; Encounter, Colonization and Devastation; Founding of the Early Republic and the Constitution; Slavery, Expansion, Removal and Reform; Civil War and Reconstruction; Development of the West, Industrialization, Immigration, and Urbanization.
10.B Understand the major causal factors that have shaped history, including individuals and groups, ideas and technology, culture, and cultural groups.
10.C Analyze and synthesize multiple interpretations and perspectives about historical events.
10.D Understand the role of historical perspective to explain the present and to plan for the future. 

11.0 Social Studies Skills: Candidates help students understand and apply reasoning skills to conduct research, deliberate, form and evaluate positions through the process of reading, writing, and communicating.

11.A Understand the process of inquiry and information skills required by citizens in a democratic society.
11.B Understand the concepts and procedures of interpersonal and group process skills required by citizens in a democratic society.
11.C Understand the concepts and procedures of critical thinking and problem solving skills to make informed and reasoned decisions in an increasingly complex world.
11.D Understand concepts, issues, themes, and events from perspectives of diverse ethnic and cultural groups.
11.E Understand the function of reading, writing, and communication skills to create meaning and to share a developing awareness of history, geography, civics, and economics.

12.0 Pedagogy to Operationalize the Social Studies and Promote Civic Behavior: Candidates exhibit the necessary Social Studies specific skills.

12.A Facilitate a variety of classroom discussion formats.
12.B Model and create classroom environments where students practice skills of inquiry.
12.B.1 Listening to multiple perspectives.
12.B.2 Developing questions and planning investigations.
12.B.3 Applying disciplinary concepts and tools.
12.B.4 Evaluating sources and using evidence.
12.B.5 Communicating conclusions (stating a position supported by evidence).
12.B.6 Taking informed action (participating in and following a discussion).
12.C Invite students into the process of civic engagement.
12.C.1 Demonstrating a variety of community involvement skills to enhance Social Studies instruction.
12.C.2 Involving students as active citizens in community.
12.C.3 Involving the community in civic engagement with students.
12.C.4 Integrating the resources of the community.
12.D Engage students in activities on global issues (e.g., sustainability, climate, conflict, economic patterns, global health, cause and effect).