Physics - Grades 5-12

The physics teacher candidate knows and understands the content of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) to sufficient depth to guide the learning of all students in the material. Competency requires evidence of integration of Science and Engineering Practices and Crosscutting Concepts with Disciplinary Core Ideas and will include examples that illustrate this integration when teaching.

1.0 Disciplinary Core Ideas

1.A Understands and can explain the disciplinary core ideas of physical science, especially as they relate to physics, and can guide the learning of others (for example, identify and respond to student ideas, use productive disciplinary representations, and know how ideas are organized and connected) in the following topics:

1.A.1 The existence of atoms, now supported by evidence from modern instruments, was first postulated as a model that could explain both qualitative and quantitative observations about matter (e.g., Brownian motion, ratios of reactants and products in chemical reactions).

1.A.2 Matter can be understood in terms of the types of atoms present and the interactions both between and within them. The states (i.e., solid, liquid, gas, or plasma), properties (e.g., hardness, conductivity), and reactions (both physical and chemical) of matter can be described and predicted based on the types, interactions, and motions of the atoms within it.

1.A.3 Chemical reactions, which underlie so many observed phenomena in living and nonliving systems alike, conserve the number of atoms of each type but change their arrangement into molecules.

1.A.4 Nuclear reactions involve changes in the types of atomic nuclei present and are key to the energy release from the sun and the balance of isotopes in matter.

1.B Motion and stability.

1.B.1 Interactions between any two objects can cause changes in one or  both of them.

1.B.2 The forces between objects is important for describing how their motions change, as well as for predicting stability or instability in systems at any scale.

1.B.3 All forces between objects arise from a few types of interactions; gravity, electromagnetism, and the strong and weak nuclear interactions.

1.C Energy.

1.C.1 Interactions of objects can be explained and predicted using the concept of transfer of energy from one object or system of objects to another.

1.C.2 The total energy within a defined system changes only by the transfer of energy into or out of the system.

1.D  Waves and their applications in technology for information transfer.

1.D.1 Waves are a repeating pattern of motion that transfers energy from place to place without overall displacement of matter. Light and sound are wavelike phenomena.

1.D.2 Wave properties and the interactions of electromagnetic radiation with matter, scientists and engineers can design systems for transferring information across long distances, storing information, and investigating nature on many scales—some of them far beyond direct human perception.

1.E Understands and can explain the disciplinary core ideas of physical science and can guide others in learning the material.

1.E.1 Applies mathematical concepts and skills to the analysis of physical systems.

1.E.1.A Interpretation of graphs, e.g., linear, quadratic, exponential, trigonometric.

1.E.1.B Algebraic reasoning, e.g., proportional reasoning, interpretation of multivariable equations, and manipulation of multivariable equations.

1.E.1.C Vector manipulation, e.g., addition and subtraction, multiplication by a scalar, dot product and cross product, and vector components.

1.E.1.D Matrix addition and multiplication.

1.E.1.E Concepts of calculus relevant to physics, e.g., limits, derivatives, and integrals of functions, slope of and area under graph, line, surface, and volume integrals of vector and scalar fields.

1.E.2 Applies principles of mechanics to the analysis of physical systems.

1.E.2.A Kinematics, e.g. interpretation of graphs, representations of motion including vector representations, motion in one and two dimensions, rotational kinematics.

1.E.2.B Dynamics, e.g., identification of forces (type of force, object exerting the force, and object on which force is exerted), Newton’s Laws, static and kinetic friction, circular motion, rotational dynamics.

1.E.2.C Energy, e.g., the role of system specification in energy analysis, work as the mechanical form of energy transfer into or out of a system, forms of energy, conditions under which the mechanical energy of a system is constant.

1.E.2.D Momentum, i.e. linear momentum, impulse as momentum transfer, angular momentum (of a rigid a body, of a particle), conditions under which the linear or angular momentum of a system are constant.

1.E.2.E Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation and its applications.

1.E.3 Applies principles of electricity and magnetism to the analysis of physical systems.

1.E.3.A Electric and magnetic fields.

1.E.3.B Electrostatics and magnetostatics.

1.E.3.C Electric circuits.

1.E.3.D Electric and magnetic forces on charged particles.

1.E.3.E Electromagnetic waves.

1.E.3.F Electromagnetic principles applied to electric motors and generators.

1.E.4  Applies principles of waves and optics to the analysis of physical systems.

1.E.4.A Mechanical pulses and waves, including sound (propagation, transmission, reflection, and standing waves).

1.E.4.B Models of light and appropriate application of each model in explaining phenomena, e.g., ray model (both monochromatic and RGB), wave model, and photon model.

1.E.4.C Geometrical optics, e.g., patterns of light created by extended light sources and irregular apertures, reflection and refraction, mirrors, and lenses.

1.E.4.D Physical optics, e.g., interference and diffraction.

1.E.5 Basic applications of the following Newtonian dynamics in the analysis of physical systems.

1.E.5.A Fluid statics and dynamics.

1.E.5.B Kinetic molecular theory.

1.F Apply the disciplinary core ideas of physics to life science, earth and space science as appropriate.

1.G Understands and can explain the disciplinary core ideas of engineering, technology, and application of science.

1.G.1 Engineering design.

1.G.1.A The design process—engineers’ basic approach to problem solving—involves many different practices.

1.G.1.B These processes include problem definition, model development and use, investigation, analysis and interpretation of data, application of mathematics and computational thinking, and determination of solutions.

1.G.1.C These engineering practices incorporate specialized knowledge about criteria and constraints, modeling and analysis, and optimization and trade-offs.

1.G.2 Links among engineering, technology, science, and society.

1.G.2.A New insights from science often catalyze the emergence of new technologies and their applications, which are developed using engineering design.

1.G.2.B New technologies open opportunities for new scientific investigations.

1.G.2.C Advances in science, engineering, and technology can have—and indeed have had—profound effects on human society, in such areas as agriculture, energy resources and usage, transportation, health care, and communication, and on the natural environment.

1.G.2.D Each system can change significantly when new technologies are introduced, with both desired effects and unexpected outcomes.

1.H Understand and apply the learning progressions in Appendix E, Disciplinary Core Ideas and Appendix I,  Engineering Design in NGSS.

1.I Anticipate learner ideas in the planning of instruction, identify students’ specific prior knowledge and skills on which instruction can be built.

1.J Demonstrate familiarity with the following topics:

1.J.1 Technological applications of electricity and electronics.

1.J.2 Atomic structure and spectroscopy.

1.J.3 Nuclear physics, radioactivity, fission, and fusion.

1.J.4 Fundamental particles, fundamental forces.

1.J.5 Wave/particle duality.

1.J.6 Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle and Bohr’s Correspondence Principle.

1.J.7 Frames of reference and Galilean relativity.

1.J.8 Special relativistic kinematics.

1.J.9 Interrelationship of matter and energy.

2.0 Science and Engineering Practices

2.A Understand and apply Science and Engineering Practices in NGSS.

2.A.1 Ask questions (for science) and define problems (for engineering).

2.A.2 Develop and use models including recognizing which features in a specific situation are most significant.

2.A.3 Plan and carry out investigations.

2.A.4 Analyze and interpret data.

2.A.5 Use mathematics and computational thinking, in particular, to develop mathematical models of physical systems to express relationships between variables.

2.A.6 Construct explanations (for science) and design solutions (for engineering).

2.A.7 Engage in argument from evidence.

2.A.8 Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information.

2.B Have experience with and model the practices by which scientists and engineers develop and refine ideas.

2.C Understand and apply the progressions in Appendix F, Scientific and Engineering Practices in NGSS.

2.D Collaborate with other content-area experts and STEM professionals to solve real-world problems, to promote equitable opportunities (see Appendix D) for in-depth experiences, and to include different perspectives.

2.E Demonstrate the ability to guide the learning of others in applying physics concepts locally and generating awareness of STEM career pathways.

3.0 Crosscutting Concepts

3.A Understands and can explain the disciplinary core ideas of physical science, can guide the learning of others (for example, identify and respond to student ideas, use productive disciplinary representations, and know how ideas are organized and connected), and explain how the Crosscutting Concepts bridge disciplinary boundaries, uniting core ideas throughout the fields of science and engineering as described in Appendix G, Section 2, Crosscutting Concepts Matrix of the NGSS. In addition, understand the distinct ways that each science discipline approaches the crosscutting concepts.

3.A.1 Patterns.

3.A.2 Cause and effect.

3.A.3 Scale, proportion, and quantities.

3.A.4 Systems and systems models.

3.A.5 Energy and matter; flows, cycles, and conservation.

3.A.6 Structure and function.

3.A.7 Stability and change.

3.B Have experience with and model the application of Crosscutting Concepts by which scientists and engineers develop and refine ideas.

3.C Understand and apply the progressions in Appendix G, Section 2, Crosscutting Concepts Matrix of the NGSS.

3.D Understand the nature of science, and be able to address student misconceptions, as described in Appendix H, Understanding the Scientific Enterprise: The Nature of Science in the NGSS.

4.0 Physics-specific Instructional Methodology

4.A Have explicit preparation that focuses on the learning and teaching of various topics in physics. This preparation should be informed by findings published in the physics education research literature.

4.B Have explicit preparation in investigation-based physics instruction. Competencies include ability to use computer-based data collection and analysis tools, and computer modeling.

4.C Incorporate instructional materials and teaching strategies to create a community of diverse student learners who can construct meaning from scientific experiences and possess a disposition for further inquiry and learning in Appendix D, All Standards, All Students in NGSS.

4.D Anticipate learner ideas in the planning of instruction, identify students’ specific prior knowledge and skills on which instruction can be built, monitor the development of student understanding, interpret student needs, develop responsive actions to meet these needs, and provide multiple opportunities for students to practice their learning.

4.E Integrate the Disciplinary Core Ideas, Crosscutting Concepts, and Science and Engineering Practices to immerse students in the manner in which scientific and engineering ideas are developed and refined.

4.E.1 Implement the Disciplinary Core Ideas of physical, life, earth and space science, and engineering progressions in Appendix E, Disciplinary Core Ideas and Appendix I,  Engineering Design in NGSS.

4.E.2 Implement the Science and Engineering Practices in Appendix F in NGSS.

4.E.3 Implement the progressions of the Crosscutting Concepts across the grades in order to help students deepen their understanding of the Disciplinary Core Ideas and develop coherent and scientifically-based view of the world in Appendix G, Section 2, Crosscutting Concepts Matrix in NGSS.

4.F Understand and be able to appropriately respond to potential safety hazards in different learning environments, e.g., laboratory, classroom, or field.

4.F.1 Establish and enforce laboratory safety (including storage and disposal of hazardous waste) in the science laboratory.

4.F.2 Demonstrate responsible use and disposal of live organisms according to Washington State law.

4.G Demonstrate an understanding of the CCSS for Mathematics and align instruction in science with instruction that students receive in mathematics, examples of which are described in Appendix L, Connections to the CCSS for Mathematics in NGSS.

4.H Demonstrate an understanding of the CCSS for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects and align instruction in science with instruction that students receive in English Language Arts, examples of which are described in Appendix M, Connections to the CCSS for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects in NGSS.