Teacher of the Visually Impaired

Note: Candidates can only add this specialty endorsement to an existing teaching certificate (WAC 181-82A-207).

1.0 Common Core: Foundations—A teacher of the visually impaired knows and understands the models, theories, philosophies, and regulatory history that form the basis for educating students who are visually impaired or blind, including those with additional disabilities, birth-21 years. Therefore, candidates will demonstrate knowledge of:

1.1 Models, theories, philosophies, and research methods that form the basis for special education practice, including visually impaired practices
1.2 Laws, policies, and ethical principles regarding behavior management planning and implementation
1.3 Relationship of special education and visual impairment services to the organization and function of educational agencies
1.4 Rights and responsibilities of individuals with exceptional learning needs, parents, teachers, and other professionals, and schools
1.5 Issues in definition and identification of individuals with visual impairments
1.6 Issues, assurances and due process rights related to assessment, eligibility, and placement within a continuum of services
1.7 Knowledge of access rights to specialized equipment and materials
1.8 Historical foundations of education of individuals with visual impairments
1.9 Definition, incidence, and prevalence of visually impaired, blind, and deaf-blind individuals, including those with additional disabilities
1.10 Basic terminology related to the structure, function, and development of the human visual system
1.11 Proficiency in the Braille code: literary and Nemeth

2.0 Common Core: Development and Characteristics of Learners with Visual Impairment—A teacher of the visually impaired possesses a deep understanding of the unique development and learning needs of students who are visually impaired or blind, including those with additional disabilities, birth-21 years. Therefore, candidates will demonstrate knowledge of:
2.1 Typical and atypical human growth and development from birth to 21
2.2 Educational implications of characteristics of various exceptionalities
2.3 The role and support of family systems in development of visually impaired or blind individuals, including those with additional disabilities
2.4 Effects and implications of medications on individuals with exceptional learning needs
2.5 Effects of visual impairment on development, experience, and learning
2.6 Effects of visual impairment on psychological and social development, including stereotypical behaviors

3.0 Common Core: Instructional Strategies and Expanded Core Curriculum for Learners with Visual Impairments—A teacher of the visually impaired designs and implements learning experiences that include the school district curriculum and the Expanded Core Curriculum (ECC), and uses effective instructional strategies for students who are visually impaired or blind, including those with additional disabilities, birth-21 years. Therefore, candidates will demonstrate knowledge of:

3.1 Evidence-based practices validated for visually impaired or blind individuals, including those with additional disabilities
3.2 Alternative strategies for teaching visual and spatial concepts
3.3 ECC 1: strategies and reading methods for using alternative learning media, i.e., Braille, large print, auditory
3.4 ECC 2: Strategies for teaching visual and sensory efficiency skills
3.5 ECC 3: Strategies for basic orientation and mobility skills, e.g., sighted guide and basic cane usage
3.6 ECC 4: Strategies for teaching the use of assistive technology, e.g., optical, nonoptical, high to low tech
3.7 ECC 5: Strategies for teaching social interaction skills, e.g., social gestures, personal space, interactive play, nonverbal communication, human sexuality
3.8 ECC 6: Strategies for teaching self-determination and self advocacy
3.9 ECC 7: Strategies for teaching organization, study, and independent living skills
3.10 ECC 8: Strategies for teaching adapted physical and recreational skills
3.11 ECC 9: Strategies for teaching career-vocational skills and providing vocational counseling

Common Core 4.0: Learning Environments/Social Interactions—A teacher of the visually impaired establishes classroom communities that support student learning and positive human relationships, integrating students who are visually impaired or blind, including those with additional disabilities, birth-21 years. Therefore, candidates will demonstrate knowledge of:
4.1
Adaptations of learning environments (residential, special day class, visually impaired resource room, itinerant services to general education/resource rooms) unique to the visually impaired or blind, including those with additional disabilities
4.2 Classroom management strategies for visually impaired or blind individuals, including those with additional disabilities
4.3 Teacher attitudes and behaviors that influence the success of students who are visually impaired or blind, including those with additional disabilities, from birth-21
4.4 School and community resources for crisis prevention and intervention
4.5 Negatively stereotyping of individuals who are visually impaired or blind, including those with additional disabilities
4.6 How diverse ethnic populations view and interpret visual impairments
4.7 Classroom organizational strategies to accommodate materials, equipment, and technology for vision loss and other disabilities
4.8 The importance of role models who are visually impaired

Common Core 5.0: Language—A teacher of the visually impaired understands the unique development and communication needs of students who are visually impaired or blind, including those with additional disabilities, birth-21 years. Therefore, candidates will demonstrate knowledge of:
5.1
Effects of visual impairment on receptive and expressive communication and how that development differs from their sighted peers
5.2 Strategies for responding and understanding the implications of nonverbal communication as a substructure of language
5.3 Augmentative and assistive communication strategies including tactile, auditory, Braille, and large print adaptations
5.4 Strategies for teaching listening and other auditory skills including aural reading, listening at increased rates of speech, digital/electronic voices, and use of sighted readers

Common Core 6.0: Instructional Planning—A teacher of the visually impaired designs and executes a wide range of instructional plans and strategies that support learning within the school district curriculum and the Expanded Core Curriculum for students who are visually impaired or blind, including those with additional disabilities, birth-21 years. Therefore, candidates will demonstrate knowledge of:
6.1
Theories and research that form the basis of curriculum development and instructional practice for individuals who are visually impaired, blind, or deaf-blind, including those with additional disabilities
6.2 Scope and sequences of special curricula for individuals who are visually impaired or blind, including those with additional disabilities
6.3 Specialized technology e.g., graphic programs, Braille embosser, video magnifier, document readers, scanners, screen access, and enlargement software, for planning, managing and producing materials
6.4 Roles and responsibilities of the paraeducator and volunteer related to instruction, intervention, and direct service
6.5 Relationship among assessment, development of individualized education program, and placement as they affect vision-related services

7.0 Common Core: Assessment—A teacher of the visually impaired designs and uses a variety of contemporary assessment strategies to evaluate the intellectual, social, personal development of students who are visually impaired or blind, including those with additional disabilities, birth-21 years. Therefore, candidates will demonstrate knowledge of:
7.1 Specialized terminology used in assessing individuals with visual impairments
7.2 Limitations of standard assessment instruments and use of specialized assessments
7.3 National, state, and local accommodations and modifications
7.4 Alternative assessment procedures and observations for individuals with visual impairments, e.g., functional vision, learning modalities, print preferences, technology use, tactile development

8.0 Common Core: Collaboration—A teacher of the visually impaired effectively collaborates with families, other educators, and related service providers of students who are visually impaired or blind, including those with additional disabilities, birth-21 years. Therefore, candidates will demonstrate knowledge of:
8.1
Models and strategies of consultation and collaboration
8.2 Role of students, families, and school and community personnel in planning an individualized program
8.3 Concerns of families and strategies to help address those concerns
8.4 Culturally responsive factors that promote effective communication and collaboration with all team members
8.5 Strategies for assisting families and other team members, including community agencies, in transition planning
8.6 Services, networks, publications, and organizations concerning individuals with visual impairments

Common Core 9.0: Instructional Methodology—A teacher of the visually impaired possess a repertoire of evidence-based curriculum and instructional strategies to accommodate students who are visually impaired or blind, including those with additional disabilities, birth-21 years. Therefore, candidates will demonstrate the ability to:
9.1
Foundations
9.1.1 Articulate personal philosophy of special education
9.1.2 Articulate an instructional philosophy that responds to the specific implications of visual impairment within the general curriculum
9.1.3 Articulate a professional philosophy that draws on specialized knowledge of visual impairment within the continuum of instructional options
9.2 Development and Characteristics of Learners
9.2.1 Select and develop teaching strategies addressing students cognitive, motor, sensory functioning levels
9.3 Individual Learning Differences
9.3.1 Use strategies to address the effects of visual impairment and individual learning styles
9.4 Instructional Strategies
9.4.1 Facilitate integration into various academic and social settings by providing adaptations for materials, environmental and presentation accommodations, and supporting peer interactions
9.4.2 Select and adapt materials in Braille, enlarged print, tactile graphics, and digital formats
9.4.3 Teach the use of braillewriter, slate and stylus, and digital notetaker
9.4.4 Teach the use of the abacus, talking calculator, tactile graphics, and adapted mathematics and science equipment
9.4.5 Select and teach strategies of self-assessment, problem-solving, and self management to meet individual needs
9.4.6 Use strategies to navigate daily transitions for individuals with visual impairments including those with multiple disabilities
9.4.7 Use strategies to facilitate maintenance and generalization of skills across learning environments
9.4.8 Teach tactile perceptual skills, including Braille reading and writing and understanding of tactile graphics to individuals who have vision loss as well as other disabilities
9.4.9 Integrate affective, social, and life skills with academic curricula
9.5 Learning Environments/Social Interactions
9.5.1 Identify realistic expectations for personal and social behavior in various settings for individuals who are visually impaired or blind, including those with additional disabilities
9.5.2 Identify and develop supports needed for inclusion into various program placements for individuals who are visually impaired or blind, including those with additional disabilities
9.5.3 Design learning environments that encourage active participation for inclusion into various program placements for individuals who are visually impaired or blind, including those with additional disabilities in individual and group activities
9.5.4 Develop and implement behavior management strategies consistent with the needs of individuals who are visually impaired or blind, including those with additional disabilities
9.5.5 Design, adapt, and manage daily routines for individuals who are visually impaired or blind, including those with additional disabilities, e.g., electronic aids, daily calendar boxes
9.5.6 Design and create incidental learning experiences
9.6 Language
9.6.1 Use strategies to support and enhance language development and communication skills of individuals with exceptional learning needs
9.6.2 Plan and implement support in literacy within the general curriculum and the expanded core curriculum
9.7 Instructional Planning
9.7.1 Train and support the activities of paraeducators, volunteers, and tutors
9.7.2 Identify and prioritize areas of the general curriculum and accommodations for individuals who are visually impaired or blind, including those with additional disabilities
9.7.3 Develop and implement comprehensive, longitudinal individualized programs
9.7.4 Use task analysis
9.7.5 Identify, sequence, implement, and evaluate individualized learning objectives
9.7.6 Incorporate and implement instructional and assistive technology into the educational program
9.7.7 Apply progress monitoring strategies to evaluate and modify instructional practices, e.g., timing and response modes such as oral responses, Brailled responses, additional time
9.7.8 Select and use appropriate technologies to accomplish instructional objectives for individuals who are visually impaired or blind, including those with additional disabilities
9.7.9 Sequence, implement, and evaluate learning objectives based on the expanded core curriculum for individuals with visual impairments
9.7.10 Obtain and organize specialized materials to implement accommodations and/or specially designed instructional goals
9.7.11 Use technology to produce Braille materials
9.8 Assessment
9.8.1 Administer and interpret specialized assessments, e.g., learning media, technology, functional vision assessments, and Expanded Common Core assessments, to develop intervention plans and identify instructional accomodations
9.8.2 Gather and interpret relevant background information, e.g., parental and teacher input, optometric and/or ophthalmologic reports for diagnosis, prognosis, age of onset, acuity, visual field
9.8.3 Select and use appropriate technologies to assess individuals who are visually impaired or blind, including those with additional disabilities
9.8.4 Use assessment information in making eligibility, program, referrals, and placement decisions, and for monitoring progress
9.8.5 Facilitate student participation in local, state, and national assessments by advocating for appropriate accommodations in presentation, response, setting, timing, and scheduling
9.9 Collaboration
9.9.1 Collaborate with families and assessment team in evaluation of students, e.g., Child Find, health screenings, school academic and cognitive assessments, teacher and doctor referrals
9.9.2 Report assessment results to all stakeholders using effective oral and written communication skills
9.9.3 Foster respectful and beneficial relationships between families and professionals throughout the TVI service delivery process
9.9.4 Assist students and their families in becoming active participants/advocates in the educational team
9.9.5 Plan and conduct collaborative conferences with students, their families, and the educational team
9.9.6 Collaborate with school personnel and community members in integrating students with diverse needs into various settings, e.g., fine arts and sports programs, community programs, work experience
9.9.7 Use group problem-solving skills by the interdisciplinary team to develop, implement, and evaluate collaborative activities, e.g., shared goal writing, conflict resolution
9.9.8 Model techniques and coach others in the use of instructional methods and accommodations unique to visually impaired students
9.9.9 Advocate for the inclusion of visually impaired students in the school environment/activities
9.9.10 Advocate for equal accessibility of all curricular materials
9.9.11 Direct and supervise the activities of paraeducators and other assistants who work with individuals with visual impairment